There are four kinds of water: Mâ-i-mutlaq; mâ-i-muqayyad; mâ-i-meshkuk; mâ-i-musta’mal. [‘Mâ’ means ‘water’.]

1– Examples of mâ-i-mutlaq are rain water, sea water, running spring water, and water from a well. This kind of water possesses the property to make dirty things clean. It can be used for any purpose.

2– Examples of mâ-i-muqayyad are melon juice, water-melon juice, grape juice, flower juice, and the like.

This kind of water also possesses the property to make dirty things clean, although it is not practicable for an ablution or ghusl.

3– Leftover water from a donkey’s drink or from the drink of a mule whose mother is a donkey is called mâ-i-meshkuk.

Both an ablution and a ghusl is permissible to make with this water. One has the choice to make either one before the other.

4– Whether water becomes mâ-i-musta’mal when it falls down onto the floor or when it leaves the body,, (i.e. the limb being washed,) is a question at issue (among Islamic scholars). Essentially, it becomes so when it leaves the body, (i.e. the fatwâ is agreeable with this ijtihâd.) Based on this, there are three different qawls, (i.e. statements wherein mujtahids express their ijtihâds.) [The word ‘ijtihâd’ is defined at various places throughout the six fascicles of Endless Bliss, e.g. in the twenty-fifth, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh chapters of the first fascicle and in the tenth and twenty-ninth chapters of the third fascicle.] According to Imâm A’zam (Abû Hanîfa) ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’, it is najâsat-i-ghalîza (qaba najâsat). [Najâsat, along with its kinds, is explained in the sixth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.] According to Imâm Abû Yûsuf ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’, it is najâsat-i-khafîfa. And according to Imâm Muhammad ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’, it is clean. This last qawl is the established one (according to the conclusive fatwâ).

There are nine conditions to be fulfilled for the wujûb of ablution, (i.e. so that ablution should be incumbent:)

1– To be a Muslim.

2– To have reached the age of puberty.

3– To be discreet.

4– To be without an ablution.

5– For the water (to be used) for ablution to be clean.

6– Ability to make an ablution.

7– (For a woman) not to be menstruating.

8– (For a woman) not to be in a puerperal period.

9– For each and every one of the daily (five) prayers of namâz, the time of namâz to have come. [This ninth condition applies to a person with an ’udhr, (which is explained in the last six paragraphs of the third chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.)