In the Hanafî Madhhab tayammum will be sahîh also before a prayer time begins. It will not be sahîh in the other three Madhhabs. There are three fards (farzes) in a tayammum: A tayammum that is required for making an ablution is the same as a tayammum required for making a ghusl. They differ only in their niyyats (intentions). Therefore, the two tayammums cannot be used for each other’s place.

1– To make a niyyat, which is compulsory.

2– To touch soil with both hands and thereafter to make masah on the entire face, covering the face with the hands.

3– To strike the soil with both palms once again and then first make masah on your entire right forearm with your left hand and then your entire left forearm with your right hand, (including the elbows.) These acts are all rukns, (i.e. they are fards within the tayammum. If any one of them are omitted, the tayammum will become null and void.)

The proof-texts showing that the tayammum is farz are the forty-third âyat-i-kerîma of Nisâ Sûra and the sixth âyat-i-kerîma of Mâida Sûra. In the Mâlikî and Shâfi’î Madhhabs, it is not permissible to make a tayammum (which you are to use instead of an ablution to perform a certain namâz) before the beginning of (that) namâz, and more than one namâzes cannot be performed with one tayammum. (In other words, you will have to make a new tayammum for every individual namâz, waiting until its prescribed time begins.)

There are six things with which it is not permissible to make a tayammum, except when there is soil dust on them. The six things are: Iron, copper, bronze, tin, gold, silver, and all other metals. Tayammum is permissible with anything other than these metals, which melt when they are heated; glass, which softens when it is heated; and glazed porcelain. However, its substance has to be earthen.

Earthen ground whereon someone has urinated can be used for performing namâz on it when it dries up. But a tayammum cannot be made from it.

For it being permissible to make a tayammum, it is required that you look for water, fail to find it, and ask an ’âdil and sâlih Muslim. (An ’âdil Muslim is one who never commits a grave sin and who does not commit a venial sin habitually. A sâlih Muslim is one who avoids not only harâms but also doubtful acts lest he should commit a sin inadvertently. Please see the first chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss for the doubtful.)

There are five obligatory essentials to be fulfilled when making a tayammum:

1– To make a niyyat. 2– To make a masah. 3– For the object to be used for making a tayammum to be of earthen matter. If it is not something made of earth, there will have to be earth dust on it. 4– The earthen object or the dust on it to be used for a tayammum has to be clean. 5– To be actually or virtually unable to use water (for making an ablution). [Weakness after a certain illness is an ’udhr as well, (in which case you may make a tayammum instead of making an ablution by using water.) So is the case with weakness on account of old age. Another convenience to be utilized by such people is that they may perform their namâz sitting.]

There are seven sunnats to be performed when making a tayammum:

1– To say the Basmala, (which means to say, “Bismillâh-ir-Rahmân ir-Rahîm,” when beginning to make a tayammum.) 2– To strike the (palms of the) hands (gently) against clean soil. 3– To rub the object against which you strike your hands (gently) by moving your hands forward and backward on it once. 4– To open the fingers. 5– To shake off the dust on the hands by striking them against each other. 6– To make masah on the face first. 7– To make masah on the entire forearms including the elbows.

There are four conditions to be fulfilled for looking for water. 1– For your location to be inhabited.

2– If you are informed of the existence of water. 3– If you are firmly convinced that there is water. 4– If you are not at a frightful place.

If a person has found water and yet the place of the water is farther than a mile away, then it will be permissible (for that person) to make a tayammum (instead of going there to make an ablution). If the distance is shorter than a mile and it is early enough so that the prayer time will not be over, it will not be permissible to make a tayammum. [One mile is a distance of four thousand zrâ’, i.e. 0.48×4000=1920 metres in the Hanafî Madhhab.]

On the other hand, if he looks for water, fails to find it, makes a tayammum and performs the namâz, and thereafter sees water, will he have to reperform his namâz? This is a question at issue (among Islamic scholars). The conclusive solution is that he will not have to reperform the namâz that he has performed.

If a person becomes wet and yet cannot find water to use for an ablution and cannot find something to use for a tayammum either, he dries a piece of mud and makes a tayammum with it. Supposing a few people have made a tayammum each; if only one of them sees water, the tayammums made by all of them will become null and void.

If a person brings some water (for a group of people) and says that one of the group is to use the water for making an ablution, the tayammums made by all the group will become fâsid, (i.e. null and void.) However, if he says that the water is for the entire group to make an ablution each and yet the water provided is enough for only one person’s ablution, the tayammums made by all of them will be sahîh (valid and sound).

Supposing a person has become junub [Junub means (one) who needs to make a ghusl for reasons such as sexual relationship and nocturnal emission. Please review the chapter dealing with ghusl.] and cannot find water anywhere but in a mosque; first he makes a tayammum for a ghusl and thereafter enters the mosque to get the water. However, if he cannot find water in the mosque, he will have to make another tayammum for performing namâz.

Supposing a person sitting in a mosque experiences a nocturnal emission; he makes a tayammum and leaves the mosque.

Supposing a person does not have hands; he may make a tayammum. However, that person will not be absolved from having to make an istinjâ if they have someone to help them do so. [Istinjâ means to clean one’s front or back after urination or defecation. Please see the final part of the sixth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss for detail.] If they do not have anyone to help them, they will be absolved from it.

If a person does not have hands and feet, they will be absolved from having to perform namâz, according to the Tarafeyn, (i.e. Imâm A’zam Abû Hanîfa and his discriple Imâm Muhammad Sheybânî.) According to Imâm Abû Yûsuf, however, that person still has to perform namâz.

On the other hand, it is not permissible to make a tayammum for Friday prayer. In other words, if a person does not have time long enough to make an ablution (for Friday prayer), it will not be permissible for him to make a tayammum in a hurry lest he should miss the Friday prayer. [For, there is the early afternoon prayer (for people who have missed the Friday prayer. They will have to perform the day’s early afternoon prayer).] It is written in the book entitled Durr-ul-mukhtâr as well that it is not permissible to make an ablution with treacle of dates termed ‘nebîdh’. (Please see the eleventh paragraph of the thind chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss for ‘nebîdh’.)

If a person experiences a nocturnal emission during a journey, he makes a tayammum and performs his morning prayer. Thereafter he continues with his journey unti noon. When there is little time left before late afternoon prayer, so that the prescribed time for early afternoon prayer is about to come to an end, he makes a tayammum and performs the early afternoon prayer. Supposing this person finds water after late afternoon, will he have to reperform his morning and early afternoon prayers? Islamic scholars have not reached a consensus on this question. According to one qawl, he will have to do so, and according to another qawl, he will not have to do so. Probably, this matter should be made to take after the matter termed ‘tertîb’, (and which is explained in the seventh paragraph of the twenty-third chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.)

Supposing a person has a donkey carrying some water on it and loses his donkey; this person, (when it is prayer time and he needs an ablution,) makes a tayammum and performs his namâz. As he performs, the moment he hears his donkey’s braying he loses his ablution.

Supposing a person is travelling on a horse and his companions will not wait for him if he dismounts from his horse; he makes a tayammum on his horse and performs his namâz (in a manner termed) îmâ, (i.e. simulation, signs.)

If a person is making a perilous journey in a cold weather, so that making a ghusl may cause him to become ill, then he performs his namâz with a tayammum.

A person who is setting out for a journey must have a tile or a brick among his personal belongings. For, if he has to make a tayammum at a place where things around him are all wet, then he makes a tayammum with the (tile or the) brick and performs his namâz.

Supposing a person starts to perform the namâz of ’Iyd and somehow loses his ablution (during the namâz); he makes a tayammum and resumes his namâz if he knows that he will be too late to catch up with the remaining part of the namâz of ’Iyd, or fears that he may be stranded in the crowd, he makes a tayammum and resumes his performance of the namaz. This qawl is according to Imâm A’zam (Abû Hanîfa). According to the qawl of the Imâmeyn, [Imâm Abû Yûsuf and Imâm Muhammad Sheybânî, two greatest disciples of Imâm A’zam Abû Hanîfa.] however, he should make an ablution.

[It is stated as follows in (Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Ismâ’îl) Tahtâwî’s annotation to (Abul-Ikhlâs Hasan bin Ammâr) Sherblâlî’s (commentatory book entitled) Merâq-il-felâh: “Illness is an ’udhr, (i.e. a good reason justified by Islam,) to (make it permissible to) make a tayammum (instead of making an ablution). It is not an ’udhr for a healthy person to fear that he may become ill should he make an ablution. Scholars who said that it is permissible for a healthy person to leave his fast to qadâ, (i.e. to postpone fasting until a later date,) if he fears that he may become ill should he fast (in the blessed month of Ramadân), said (also) that it is permissible for a person who fears that he may become ill to make a tayammum (instead of an ablution). Four things are meant by ‘becoming ill’: Water may be harmful (to one’s health). Movement may be harmful. One may be unable to use water. One may not be able to make a tayammum, either. Harm will be judged either by one’s strongly sensing it or by a warning on the part of an ’âdil Muslim doctor and a specialist. If an ’âdil Muslim doctor cannot be found, decision made by a doctor whose sinfulness is not known openly and publicly will be admitted. A person who is unable to use water on his own makes a tayammum if he cannot find someone to help him to make an ablution. If he has children or servants or someone to help him to make an ablution for friendship’s sake, one of these people will help him with an ablution. If none of these people is available, then he makes a tayammum. According to Imâm A’zam, he does not have to hire someone to help him in return for a payment. A person who cannot make a tayammum, either, leaves the namâz to qadâ, (i.e. postpones the namâz until he recovers.) Although husband and wife de not have to help each oher to make an ablution or to perform namâz, the husband ought to ask his wife for help. Supposing a person is outside of town and village and therefore cannot find hot water; he makes a tayammum if he is afraid of becoming ill should he make a ghusl with cold water. A fatwâ has been given that this rule applies within urban areas as well. If more than half of a person’s limbs of ablution and/or ghusl is sore, he makes a tayammum (instead of an ablution and/or ghusl). If the parts that are sore covers an area half of the limbs (of ablution and/or ghusl), then he washes the healthy parts and makes masah on the sore parts; if the masah will cause harm to the sore parts, then he makes masah on the bandages. If this also will cause harm, then he does not make masah, either. If there is a sore on his head, so that masah will cause harm, he will be absolved from (having to make) masah. Supposing there are cuts on the places that are farz to wash (when making an ablution) of both hands of a person whose face is sore, too; then that person will not be able to make a tayammum; so he performs namâz without an ablution, and will not have to reperform the namâz performed. If his face is healthy, he has his face washed. If he does not have a helper he rubs his face (gently) on soil. If one of the hands of a healthy person is apoplectic or wounded or cut or crippled, he makes an ablution with his other hand. If his both hands are so, he rubs his face on soil. If the bandage or piece of wood or ointment or plaster cast applied perforce on a sore or abscessed or broken limb for treatment and protection cannot be removed and so that part of the limb cannot be washed or made masah on, masah is made on the major part of its surface and on the healthy skin in between. If possible, it is necessary to remove the bandage or the piece of wood or the ointment or the plaster cast, make masah on the problematic area, and wash the healthy area of the skin. These things do not necessarily have to be applied after making an ablution; nor is there a deadline for their usage. It is permissible to wash the healthy foot and make masah on the bandage on the other one. If the thing put on it falls off before the injury heals, the ablution will not become nullified. Nor will it become nullified if the bandage is changed after masah has been made on it. If the ointment applied on a broken or injured nail or on a cut on one’s foot should not be removed because it will be harmful to remove it, one has been involved in an impasse called ‘quandary’, in which case one washes the outer part of the ointment. In case washing may be harmful, one makes masah on it. If masah may be harmful, too, then one does not make masah, either. [Since the same rule applies in the other three Madhhabs as well, it is out of the question to imitate another Madhhab.] That this ointment is like a splint is written in the book entitled Ibni ’Âbidîn. However, having one’s teeth filled or crowned is quite a different matter. For, it is possible to imitate Mâlikî or Shâfi’î Madhhab. If a person loses his mind or faints without he himself causing it and stays in that state throughout six prayer times, he will not have to make qadâ of the namâzes which he did not perform (during those six prayer times. In other words, he will not have to perform them afterwards). Regardless of the number of the namâzes which an invalid failed to perform by way of îmâ (signs, simulation), he does not (have to) add to his will that an isqat of them should be performed. He makes qadâ of them all if he recovers.” (Please see the twenty-first chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for ‘isqat’ and dawr.)

Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahmatullâhi ’alaih’ states: “It is makrûh for a healthy person to have his limbs of ablution washed or made masah on by someone else. It is permissible for a second person to bring him water for an ablution or to pour water as he himself washes (his limbs of ablution). If an invalid dirties his clothes or his bed all the time, or if it is burdensome to change them, he performs his namâzes with his najs clothes on. If the flat pieces of wood splints, plasters, ointments fall off after the injury under them heals, the (invalid’s) ablution becomes nullified. If the injury heals and the hings on it do not fall off, the (invalid’s) ablution and/or ghusl will become nullified again if they could be removed harmlessly.

Allâhu ta’âlâ inflicts pains and illnesses on His beloved slaves in order to forgive their sins or increase the blessings they will be given in Paradise. Their worship is troublesome and laborious. In return for that, He gives them ease and succour in their worldly activities and barakat in their rizq (food, drink, and vital needs which Allâhu ta4âlâ foreordained in the eternal past for each and every one of His slaves. There is plenty of information about rizq throughout the six fascicles of Endless Bliss). He does not give the same ease and barakat to people who neglect their worship. Such people earn much by way of arduous toil, trickery, and treason and lead a life of pleasures, debauchery, which do not last long. Shortly thereafter they wind up in hospitals and prisons, grovelling in misery for the rest of their lives. The torment they will suffer in the Hereafter will be incomparably more severe.]