An ablution has four farzes (or fards) in the Hanafî Madhhab, seven farzes in the Mâlikî Madhhab, and six farzes in the Shâfi’î and Hanbalî Madhhabs. In the Hanafî Madhhab, they are:
1– To wash one’s face.
2– To wash one’s forearms, including the elbows. 3– To make masah on one-fourth of one’s head.
4– To wash one’s fect, including to heel bones.
There are four kinds of ablution: One of its kinds is farz, the second kind is wâjib, the third kind is sunnat, and the fourth kind is mandûb.
There are four instances of an ablution that is farz: To make an ablution in order to hold the Qur’ân al-kerîm or to perform one of the daily five prayers called namâz or to perform a namâz of janâza –explained in detail in the fifteenth chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss– or to make a sajda of tilâwat –explained in the sixteenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.
An ablution that is wâjib is the one which is made for the tawâf-i-ziyârat-explained in the seventh chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss.
An ablution that is sunnat is the one which is made for reciting the Qur’ân al-kerîm (without holding it) or for visiting Muslims’ cemetery, or making an ablution before a ghusl.
An ablution that is mandûb is the one which you make before going to bed and/or after getting up. If you tell a lie or gossip about someone or listen to music arousing lust, it is mandûb to make a tawba and istighfâr for the sin involved and then make an ablution.
It is mandûb as well to have an ablution when going out for a gathering of ’ilm (knowledge) or to renew your ablution although you made an ablution which you still have but after which you have done something which would not be permissible to do without an ablution, [for instance if you have performed namâz.] If you have not performed that act of worship (with the ablution you made), it is makrûh to make an ablution although you have an ablution.