Cowardice (Jubn)

“Jubn” means being cowardly. The necessary amount of anger (ghadab) or treating harshly is called bravery (shajâ’at). Anger which is less than the necessary amount is called cowardice (jubn). Cowardice is a vice. Imâm-i Muhammad bin Idris Shâfi’î ‘rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ’ says, “A person who acts cowardly in a situation which demands bravery resembles an ass.…

Tahawwur

Excessive anger or harshness which reaches dangerous levels is called tahawwur (boldness, foolhardiness). A person with tahawwur demonstrates attributes of harshness, wrath and roughness. Opposite of tahawwur is softness (hilm). A soft natured person will not become angry or excited when he encounters a situation which causes anger (ghadab). A cowardly person only harms himself.…

Breach Of Promise (Ghadr)

One of the things that causes anger is to renege on one’s promise or word (ghadr). When a person promises something, it is called a promise (wa’d). If the promise is made by two people mutually, it is called “’ahd”. A promise (wa’d) which is emphasized with an oath is called “mîsâk”. When one of those who mutually promised…

Perfidy (Hıyânat)

The twenty-second malady of the heart is “hiyânat”. Committing “hiyânat” causes anger (ghadab). “Hiyânat” also is forbidden (harâm) and it is a sign of hypocrisy. The opposite of “hiyânat” is being trustworthy (amânat). The meaning of “hiyânat” is as follows: A person who portrays himself to others as trustworthy and then does something which belies this impression. A Believer (Mu’min)…

Breach of Promise

Another cause of anger (ghadab) is a broken promise. We have already explained that a promise made by only one party is called “promise” (wa’d) and a promise by both parties is called agreement “’ahd”. A promise of punishment is called “wa’îd”. It is a kindness not to fulfil this kind of promise. It is prohibited (harâm) to promise…

To Have A Bad Opinion About Others (Sû-izan)

To presume that one’s sins will not be forgiven means to commit sû-i-zan against Allâhu ta’âlâ. And to presume that all Believers are sinners, means to commit sû-i-zan against Believers (Mu’mins). “Sû-i zan” is a forbidden (harâm) act. A dislike taken against someone upon seeing him committing a prohibited action or learning that he has committed prohibited actions would not be…

Sympathy For Fâsiqs

A person who commits forbidden deeds (harâms) flagrantly is called ‘fâsiq’, and the sin committed thus is called ‘fisq’. The worst “fisq” is to commit oppression (zulm). For, it is perpetrated openly and also involves the rights of individuals. The fifty-seventh and hundred and fortieth âyat-i-kerîmas of Sûra Âl-i-’Imrân of the Qur’ân al-kerîm purport: “……

Animosity Toward Scholars

Mockery of Islamic knowledge or Islamic scholars causes disbelief. Anyone who swears at or speaks ill of an Islamic scholar will become a disbeliever and an apostate. Fisq or bid’at (on the part of a scholar) makes it necessary to take a dislike to him. Yet it is sinful to dislike him for worldly considerations.…

Instigation (Fitna)

An example of fitna is to cause distress and trouble to others, e.g. by pursuing a policy which will pave the way for a military takeover. It is stated in a hadîth-i-sherîf: “Fitna is asleep. May Allâhu ta’âlâ’s curse be upon those who awaken it.” Stirring up a rebellion against the laws of the land…